Nature repeating itself

It was Georgia O’Keefe who said, ‘When you take a flower in your hand and really look at it, it’s your world for the moment’. It’s worth doing this, nature is captivating close up; perfectly packaged and clinically efficient, each flower has an adapted shape and look gleaned over hundreds of thousands of years for maximum productivity. This economy of engineering uses patterns and shapes that are repeated again and again throughout the natural world and dotted all around the Botanic Garden. (more…)

Know your knotweed advice

By Nicola Temple

Researchers at the University of Exeter‘s Penryn campus have had a comprehensive look at Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica)  guidance from a range of sources on the web, including government sites, environmental NGOs, weed control companies, the media and the property market. They’ve found that this advice is often contradictory and even misleading.

A Japanese knotweed contaminated area in Hertfordshire
is identified with signage.
Photo credit: Peter O’Connor via Flickr [CC By-SA 2.0]
Japanese knotweed was introduced to the UK as an ornamental in the mid-1800s. It quickly became a problem plant, spreading swiftly and widely across the UK. This brutish invasive can penetrate building foundations and drains and is estimated to cost the UK economy £165 million a year.
The plant can grow from very small fragments of rhizome that weigh as little 0.01 g [1]. The rhizome material is capable of surviving for three months in a salty environment, which allows it to spread in coastal regions. Disturbing the rhizomes underground only promote growth and cutting the material above ground stimulates new above ground stems. It is the very definition of nuisance.

Japanese knotweed and the law

Two pieces of legislation were enacted to  provide the legal teeth needed to help control Japanese knotweed [2]. Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Section 14), it is illegal to plant or otherwise cause Japanese knotweed to grow in the wild. Offences can carry a maximum £5,000 fine or six months in prison, or both, in magistrates court. A Crown Court can impose an unlimited fine or maximum prison sentence of 2 years, or both.
The second piece of legislation is under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (Section 33), where it is classed as ‘controlled waste# and must therefore be disposed of according to the Environmental Protection Act (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991. If you keep, treat or dispose of knotweed in a manner that is likely to allow it to spread, a magistrates court can impose a maximum fine of £20,000 or prison sentence of 6 months, or both. A Crown Court can impose an unlimited fine or maximum prison sentence of 2 years, or both.
Allowing Japanese knotweed to spread to your neighbours can also be considered a private nuisance. Failure to control this plant on your land could therefore result in a prosecution or community protection notice.

Mixed messages

Japanese knotweed growing along a fence in East London.
Photo credit: Gordon Joly via Flickr [CC licence BY-SA 2.0]

The research, published today (4th July) in the journal Applied Ecology, included a content analysis, which objectively describes written, spoken and visual communication, and allows researchers to quantify different types of content. This is a method often used in social research, but rarely applied to ecological questions, such as invasive plants. The results showed that there is conflicting advice out there, particularly about the disposal of Japanese knotweed, which could result in people taking the wrong course of action that leads to the unlawful and environmentally harmful spread of the plant.
“It is important to provide clear advice about the waste disposal of Japanese knotweed,” explained Beth Robinson, a PhD researcher in Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute and lead author of the study, “as it can regrow from small fragments of rhizome and incorrect disposal of waste material can result in further spread of this plant.”
Even government websites were found to have conflicting and unclear information. The researchers point to Devon and Cornwall councils as both having valuable and accurate information about knotweed management. However, most of us are likely to consult the website of our own local council with the assumption that the information they provide is accurate.
“We recommend that local and national authorities collaborate and work towards disseminating more consistent messages,” said Robinson.
A tendency by the media to sensationalise the risks associated with this invasive plant can lead to unnecessary anxiety and expenditure.  An extreme example of this was headlines in 2013 such as ‘Murder andsuicide by husband driven mad over knotweed‘. Stories such as this make it sound as though the plant might have a psychoactive effect – driving people mad by its sheer presence, when indeed there are serious underlying mental health issues.
The Exeter researchers stress that Japanese knotweed needs to be dealt with on a case by case basis. While some knotweed invasions do require professional assistance, small-scale occurrences in domestic gardens may be effectively controlled and disposed of responsibly by the homeowner.

Visit the Cornwall Council website for some reliable information about Japanese knotweed and its management. 


The paper in Applied Ecology is titled ‘Weeds on the web: conflicting management advice about an invasive non-native plant’ and is authored by Beth S. Robinson, Richard Inger, Sarah L. Crowley and Kevin J. Gaston.


Sources:

[1]   &nbs
p; Macfarlane, J.S. (2011) Development of Strategies for the Control and Eradication of Japanese Knotweed [MPhil Thesis, University of Exeter] <https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/11862>

[2]     Cornwall County Council (2016) ‘Japanese Knotweed Legal Issues’ [website accessed 4/7/2016] <https://www.cornwall.gov.uk/environment-and-planning/trees-hedges-and-woodland/invasive-plants/japanese-knotweed/japanese-knotweed-legal-issues/>

Bristol is buzzing, how the city is helping pollinators

By Helen Roberts

There has been a substantial amount of press coverage recently on the plight of our pollinators. They are now less abundant and widespread than they were in the 1950s. A number of threats are responsible, including habitat loss, disease, extreme weather, climate change and pesticide use.
A swathe of flowers for pollinators bring a
lot of cheeriness on a grey autumn day on
Horfield Common, Bristol.
Photo credit: Nicola Temple
There is not one smoking gun among these threats, but rather the combination that has endangered some species in the UK. Loss of wild flower rich habitat (due to intensive agriculture, industrialisation and urbanisation) escalates the effect of disease, extreme weather, climate change and pesticide use. Without food or shelter, pollinators are more vulnerable.

 Whilst visiting the University of Bristol Botanic Garden this autumn, I noticed the abundance of pollinators busily visiting many different flowers from the orchid look-a-like flower of Impatiens tinctoria to the swathes of Rudbeckia sp. and Verbena bonariensis. This year saw the 6th year of the University of Bristol Botanic Garden hosting the Bee and Pollination Festival in September. The Community Ecology Group from Bristol’s School of Biological Sciences was exhibiting and promoting their research as well as the exciting Get Bristol Buzzing initiative.
To find out more about pollinator research at the University, I met up with Dr Katherine Baldock, a Natural Environment Research Council Knowledge Exchange Fellow from the School of Biological Sciences and the Cabot Institute, to discuss the group’s work.
“Most people know that pollinators are important, but quite often don’t know what to do to help them, “ explained Katherine. “And this is where our research at the University comes into play”.
The aim of Katherine’s fellowship is to improve the value of the UK’s urban areas for pollinators by working with various stakeholders, such as city councils, conservation practitioners and the landscape industry. 

Translating science into solutions

NERC KE Fellow Dr Katherine Baldock.
Photo credit: Nicola Temple.

Up until 2014, Katherine worked on the Urban PollinatorsProject, which is researching insect pollinators and the plants they forage on in urban habitats.
Building upon research from this project and her current Fellowship, Katherine and her Bristol colleagues have contributed to the development of  a Greater Bristol Pollinator Strategy(2015-2020). The University research group has teamed up with Bristol CityCouncil, the Avon Wildlife Trust, Friends of the Earth Bristol, Buglife, SouthGloucestershire Council and the University of the West of England to implement this with the aim of protecting existing habitat and increasing pollinator habitat in the Greater Bristol area.
The group is also raising awareness of the importance of pollinators to a wide-ranging audience within the city and further afield. This is the first local pollinator strategy within the UK and follows closely in the wake of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs’ National Pollinator Strategy launched in 2014. It will help to promote aspects of the national strategy relevant to urban areas and hopefully set a precedent for the development of other local pollinator strategies throughout the UK.
The local pollinator strategy outlines actions that will help fulfill the strategy aims, including:
·         formation of a Local Pollinator Forum intended to share knowledge and best practice,
·         establishment of a joined-up approach to pollinator conservation by linking projects through the Get Bristol Buzzing initiative,

·         working with the public in local areas to explain actions they can take as individuals.

“Urban green spaces are important corridors for wildlife and help to provide linkages across the country”, explained Katherine. I envisaged a series of insect aerial motorways linking the whole of the UK, invisible threads connecting countryside, urban fringe and city centres.

The bee link-up

The Get Bristol Buzzing initiative is doing just that, as one of its strategic aims with the local pollinator strategy for 2016-2020, is to “Map pollinator habitat and identify target sites that allow habitat networks and stepping stones to be created to enable pollinators to move through urban areas”.
Katherine talked about how engaging the public at ground level was really important to Get Bristol Buzzing. The initiative is the pollinator component of My Wild City, a project whose vision is for people in Bristol to help transform spaces into a city-wide nature reserve. A number of interactive maps have been created that allow people to add what they have been doing in their area to help wildlife. The Get Buzzing initiative will feed into these maps.
Kath said, “The fact that you can add yourselves onto a map makes the Get Buzzing Initiative really visually appealing to people and much more personal.”

So, what can you do at home to help urban pollinators?

·         Plant for pollinators. Think about what plants you have in your garden. Could you change the planting or improve on it to make it more attractive to pollinators? Think about growing species that have nectar and pollen rich flowers and let your lawn grow longer to allow plants to flower.
·         Avoid pesticides. Most gardeners like their plants to remain pest free but avoid the temptation to use pesticides and accept the fact that you will lose some plants to pests. Instead try to encourage wildlife that will devour those pests or cultivate plants that will deter pests. 
·         Provide habitat. As pollinators need a home, you can always make your own nest boxes if you want to give your pollinating visitors a helping hand by drilling holes in a log or by bundling up lengths of hollow sticks such as bamboo. Visit the Botanic Garden’s bee hotel for inspiration!
“Setting aside a wild bit of garden can help pollinators by providing food, but provides nesting sites too”, remarked Katherine.

Additional information:

·         The Urban Pollinators Project was recently listed as one of the top 10 ground-breaking research projects in the Daily Telegraph. Read more.

·         Results from this research have recently been published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B with more publications in press. A list of publications can be found here.

·         You can read more about Dr Katherine Baldock and the Urban Pollinators Project on page 7 of the 2015 edition of the Cabot Institute’s magazine.